Archivo por Autor

The ESADEgeo Daily Digest, 20/07/2017

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South China Morning Post—Z. Lu / US and China talks in Washington end in deadlock as threat of trade war rises

  • China and the US failed to reach an agreement on trade at the first Comprehensive Economic Dialogue in Washington on Wednesday, co-chaired by US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, US Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross and Chinese Vice-Premier Wang Yang.
  • US delegation statement: “China acknowledged our shared objective to reduce the trade deficit which both sides will work cooperatively to achieve.”
  • The statement issued by the Chinese delegation said both sides would promote cooperation in the manufacturing sector, improve communication about macroeconomic policies, as well as cooperation in the financial sector and its supervision.
  • The threat of trade war still looms. On Wednesday, when asked by a reporter if he would impose tariffs on steel imports, President Donald Trump said it “could happen”.

The Guardian—P. Beaumont / Netanyahu attack on EU policy towards Israel caught on microphone

  • At a meeting with the leaders of Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Poland, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu urged these countries to close their doors to refugees from Africa and the Middle East.
  • “I think Europe has to decide if it wants to live and thrive or if it wants to shrivel and disappear,” Netanyahu said, being caught on an open microphone. “I am not very politically correct. I know that’s a shock to some of you. It’s a joke. But the truth is the truth – both about Europe’s security and Europe’s economic future. Both of these concerns mandate a different policy toward Israel.”
  • “The European Union is the only association of countries in the world that conditions the relations with Israel, which produces technology in every area, on political conditions. The only ones! Nobody does it [...] It’s crazy. It’s actually crazy,” added Netanyahu, referring to the EU association agreement with Israel that has been held up because of current Israeli policies.
  • “The EU is undermining its security by undermining Israel,” said Netanyahu. “Europe ends in Israel. East of Israel, there is no more Europe.”
  • Netanyahu also made a rare public admission that Israel has struck Iranian arms convoys in Syria bound for Hezbollah “dozens and dozens of times”.

Foreign Affairs—S. J. Karam / Capitalism did not win the Cold War

  • If capitalism won in 1991, its victory was short-lived. In the years that have followed, it is cronyism that has captured an increasing share of economic activity.
  • “Cronyism occurs when government officials and business elites collude to benefit themselves in ways that would be impossible if they were limited to arms-length transactions.”
  • The phenomenon of cronyism does not affect only countries like Venezuela, or the BRICs. Cronyism and inequality have grown hand in hand in the United States since the mid-1990s.
  • Technology and the ability to leverage strong brands into new foreign markets have also played a role in increasing inequality. But there is no question that people who have been well positioned in extractive sectors have benefited disproportionately.

Financial Times—G. Meyer / Coal has no future, says US railroad boss

  • CSX, a US freight railroad company and one of the largest carriers of US coal, will not buy a single new locomotive to pull coal trains.
  • “Fossil fuels are dead,” CSX CEO Hunter Harrison said. “That’s a long-term view. It’s not going to happen overnight. It’s not going to be in two or three years. But it’s going away, in my view.”
  • North American railroads have reshaped their asset holdings, acknowledging that coal’s apex has passed.

 The selected pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Javier Solana and ESADEgeo. 

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The ESADEgeo Daily Digest, 19/07/2017

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Financial Times—J. Shotter, et al. / Polish president threatens to veto Supreme Court bill

  • Poland’s President, Andrzej Duda, has threatened to veto legal reform that—according to critics—would undermine the independence of the country’s judiciary.
  • Duda said he would not sign a bill that could force some members of the Supreme Court to step down unless parliament accepted an amendment to another bill covering the National Judicial Council.
  • The amendment would mean three-fifths of MPs, rather than a simple majority, would be needed to appoint new members to the National Judicial Council. According to the former bill, this council would decide which Supreme Court judges would be kept on.
  • The parliamentary maneuvers led by the ruling Law and Justice Party (to which Duda used to belong) come as the European Commission considers whether to escalate action against Warsaw by triggering a formal warning mechanism never previously deployed against any EU member.

Brookings—D. Dollar & R. Haas / Expect more process than progress at U.S.-China Comprehensive Economic Dialogue

  • This week, the US is hosting the US-China Comprehensive Economic Dialogue. This week’s session is likely to produce agreement on a one-year action plan for tackling trade and investment impediments.
  • Although, to the dismay of many in the business community, the new action plan will likely be general and non-specific, Trump’s approach thus far demonstrates broad continuity with the US-China economic policy of his predecessors.
  • The US will not make concessions on China’s priorities, but neither does China feel the pressure to give in to US demands.
  • 2017 is not a promising year to negotiate reforms with China. With the 19th Party Congress to be held in autumn, no senior Chinese official will want to invite any appearance of capitulation to US pressure.
  • Any significant tariffs on steel could signal a more protectionist US stance, which would affect China directly, and likely lead to a hardening of China’s positions vis-à-vis the United States.

Foreign Affairs—E. Miller & K. Truitte / Filling the vacuum in Libya

  • The US and its European allies must do more to leverage both sticks and carrots to bring the warring Libyan parties and their regional supporters to the UN-led negotiating table in order to reach a lasting political accord.
  • It would be unwise to view instability in Libya solely through the lens of counterterrorism, as such a view obscures the true root of Libya’s problems: its governance vacuum.
  • There have been some positive developments in Libya lately, but the window of opportunity is closing fast. Foreign disputes, such as the ongoing diplomatic spat in the Persian Gulf between Qatar and a Saudi-led bloc (which back opposing proxies in Libya), could curtail progress toward negotiation.
  • As for oil, increases in revenues from rising production could either prove a great boon for the country or lead to more competition and instability.

The Economist / South-East Asia’s future looks prosperous but illiberal

  • Overall, the ten countries of the ASEAN grew at an annual rate of 5% over the past five years.
  • Across South-East Asia, liberal economics have won out, in part as a result of the Asian financial crisis. However, in political terms, the region is heading in the opposite direction.
  • It is Myanmar that most encapsulates the region’s democratic reversal. When the army ceded power last year to Aung San Suu Kyi, its Nobel-prize-winning opponent of 30 years, expectations were astronomically high. That has made her government’s repressive acts all the more bewildering.
  • Democratic institutions are not as weak in the region’s two biggest countries, Indonesia and the Philippines, as in the rest of the ASEAN, but in both countries liberals also have more cause for fear than hope.

Foreign Policy—S. Walt / The global consequences of Trump’s incompetence

  • Since the presidency of George H. W. Bush, “things [in terms of US competence in foreign policy] have gone from good to bad to worse to truly awful.”
  • Offshore balancing [the strategy proposed by Walt and John Mearsheimer] won’t work if other states have little or no confidence in U.S. judgment, skill, and competence.

The selected pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Javier Solana and ESADEgeo. 

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The ESADEgeo Daily Digest, 18/07/2017

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The New York Times—P. Baker / Trump recertifies Iran nuclear deal, but only reluctantly

  • For the second time, President Trump agreed to certify to the US Congress (as it is asked to do every 90 days) that Iran is complying with the nuclear agreement.
  • All of the president’s major security advisers recommended he preserve the Iran deal for now, as Trump reportedly spent 55 minutes of the meeting telling them he did not want to.
  • However, the Administration also announced its intent to toughen enforcement of the deal, apply new sanctions on Iran for its support of terrorism and other destabilizing activities, and negotiate with European partners to craft a broader strategy to increase pressure on Tehran.
  • Tehran argues that Trump has already violated the nuclear agreement by pressuring businesses not to engage with Iran. “That is violation of not the spirit but of the letter of the J.C.P.O.A. of the nuclear deal,” said Mohammad Javad Zarif, Iran’s foreign minister.
  • Some of Trump’s advisers argue that if they can provoke Iran into being the one to scrap the nuclear deal, it will leave the US in a stronger position.

Project Syndicate—A. Slaughter & F. Perera / Venezuela’s rebels with a cause

  • At least 115 protesters have died in Venezuela since the opposition-organized street protests began on April 1. More than 50 of those killed have been younger than 30, and many were just teenagers.
  • The Chavista regime tapped the country’s large oil revenues to expand the public sector. But spending oil revenues to educate students for jobs that depend on future oil revenues is hardly a sustainable economic model.
  • The collapse of oil prices, combined with years of economic mismanagement, has left young Venezuelans with high expectations but no real prospects. The government hasn’t reported official unemployment rates in over a year, but it is believed to be very high.
  • Protesters are calling on the government to hold a fair presidential election, free all political prisoners, and open a humanitarian corridor for the country to receive food and medicine.

Foreign Policy—C. Miller / Why isn’t Russia worried about Kim Jong Un’s nukes?

  • Moscow believes the only solution to the Korean dispute is negotiations with Pyongyang that result in security guarantees for the Kim Jong-un regime. The Kremlin supports placing limitations on the North’s nuclear program but is wary of sanctions and opposes regime change.
  • Russia is not very worried about North Korean missiles. There are a surprising number of economic ties between the two countries, and many North Korean students and workers in Russia. But more importantly, Moscow interprets Pyongyang’s behavior very differently than does Washington or its allies.
  • The Kremlin believes in the rationality of Kim Jong-un’s regime. If Washington had not threatened regime change, many Russian analysts argue, North Korea would not have felt it necessary to build nuclear weapons in the first place.
  • Like Beijing, Moscow has no interest in seeing the North Korean government replaced by a unified Korea allied with the US.

Financial Times—D. Sheppard / Oil imports help feed US export powerhouse

  • According to one study, the US will start shipping more oil overseas than the majority of Opec countries by 2020.
  • However, as more oil flows out of the US, more is also flowing in. In the first six months of 2017, imports have risen 5 per cent, compared with the same period last year.
  • About two-thirds of the rise in US imports this year has come from Canada. The remainder has largely come from member countries of Opec.
  • “The US has too much light oil, so they send that out then need to import some heavy to medium crude oils,” said Olivier Jakob, an analyst at Petromatrix. Nevertheless, US traders have also been moving out larger cargoes of heavier oils to Asia.

The selected pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Javier Solana and ESADEgeo. 

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The ESADEgeo Daily Digest, 17/07/2017

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Foreign Affairs—J. Berkshire Miller / Japan warms to China

  • Although trust between China and Japan remains elusive, their governments have taken some incremental steps to stabilize their troubled relations.
  • Perhaps the clearest indication of that is Tokyo’s interest in hosting reciprocal summits in both countries before 2018 (although this is unlikely to happen before the Chinese Communist Party’s 19th national congress to be held this fall). PM Shinzo Abe and President Xi Jinping already met on the sidelines of the G20, and diplomatic talks on specific issues (e.g., maritime issues) are taking place.
  • Shinzo Abe has also cautiously endorsed the Belt and Road Initiative, recognizing that Japan’s potential involvement could eventually help shape the regulations that will govern the initiative’s practices.
  • Abe has recently shown some interest in joining the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). Meanwhile, the Asian Development Bank, an institution dominated by Japan and the United States, has already begun to work on some joint projects with the AIIB.
  • Japan is not hedging against its alliance with the United States by turning to China; rather, it is playing on the edges of a troubled relationship and finding opportunities to improve ties.

The Guardian—D. Roberts / Majority of Brexiters would swap free movement for EU market access

  • According to two studies, the majority of Brexit supporters would be happy to swap European free movement for single market access.
  • Leave voters would be evenly split if the government tried to keep full access to the single market in exchange for allowing a version of free movement that limited welfare benefits for new arrivals.
  • Asked to consider a system where EU migrants were sent home if they did not find work, 55% of leave voters said they would be satisfied with this, versus only 25% who would be unhappy.
  • A study shows that there is very little appetite for the government’s “no deal is better than a bad deal” approach to the talks, and voters are much keener to compromise.

POLITICO—M. Karnitschnig / Beijing’s Balkan backdoor

  • Longstanding ties between China and Serbia, combined with geography, have helped put Belgrade at the center of Beijing’s European push.
  • As Serbia is eager to attract infrastructure investment with few visible strings attached, China may be seeking to increase its influence in countries that will likely one day be full-blown members of the EU.
  • Just last month, Greece—where China is also investing heavily—blocked the EU from issuing a statement condemning a Chinese crackdown on activists.
  • The Balkans form an important corridor along Beijing’s “One Belt, One Road”. Serbia, situated in the center of the region, is the linchpin of China’s plan to create a land bridge to Piraeus.
  • The centerpiece of Beijing’s engagement in Serbia is a nearly €3 billion high-speed rail link between Belgrade and Budapest, which will cut travel times from 8 to 3 hours.

Foreign Policy—B. Allen-Ebrahimian / In landmark move, GOP Congress calls climate change ‘direct threat’ to security

  • One study last year found that rising oceans threaten 128 US military installations on the coasts, including naval facilities worth around $100 billion. For over a decade, the Pentagon has been aware of the looming danger represented by climate change.
  • Finally, the Pentagon’s stance may have gotten a boost from the Republican-controlled Congress. The House retained an amendment to the 2018 defense funding bill affirming that “climate change is a direct threat to the national security of the United States,” with some 45 Republicans voting for the climate-change language.
  • “I think it’s maybe the beginning of a turning point in Congress,” said Andrew Holland, director of studies and senior fellow for energy and climate at the nonpartisan policy organization American Security Project.
  • In the testimony prior to his confirmation, US Defense Secretary James Mattis said the following: “I agree that the effects of a changing climate — such as increased maritime access to the Arctic, rising sea levels, desertification, among others — impact our security situation.”

The selected pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Javier Solana and ESADEgeo.

Política Internacional | Permalink

The ESADEgeo Daily Digest, 13/07/2017

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Financial Times—P. Stephens / Viktor Orban’s Hungary has crossed to Europe’s dark side

  • Viktor Orban has stirred the fears of Hungary’s Jewish community with a campaign of vilification directed at George Soros.
  • The country is now plastered in posters denouncing Soros for challenging Orban’s hardline response to the Middle East refugee crisis. Soros is being accused of backing “illegal” immigration.
  • Orban’s government has been permissive of the xenophobia preached by the neo-Nazi Jobbik party, which polls indicate is supported by one fifth of Hungarian voters. Jobbik leaders have suggested registration of the nation’s Jews.
  • Israel’s ambassador in Budapest has expressed concern, but Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu—who, like Orban, disdains the “liberal” in liberal democracy—has not canceled a planned visit to Hungary.

Foreign Affairs—B. Alghussein & J. A. Stacey / How Saudi Arabia botched its campaign against Qatar

  • Because Qatar complied with none of the GCC’s demands, the gambit’s lack of coherence is being laid bare. Without a plan B, immediate escalation is unlikely to transpire. Instead, it is probable that both sides will go forward for the time being in a state of mutual diplomatic paralysis.
  • The Saudi-led group has made missteps from the start, beginning with pushing Qatar directly into Iran and Turkey’s hands by cutting it off with an economic blockade. Trump’s visit appears to have been the primary catalyst for this move.
  • Riyadh has also managed to weaken the GCC, a body that is fundamental for regional stability and commerce.
  • Continued hostile rhetoric toward Iran from the Trump administration would create a disincentive for the Iranian elite to maintain compliance with the nuclear deal. Were the White House to continue fomenting hostilities between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, there may also be a loss of domestic political support in Qatar for maintaining U.S. military bases.
  • A face-saving deal would likely involve Qatar privately committing to reduce its support of the Muslim Brotherhood, with the rest of the GCC restoring economic ties.

Bloomberg—G. Smith / OPEC’s first 2018 outlook shows it’s pumping too much oil

  • OPEC’s first assessment of world oil markets in 2018 showed that, despite cutting output, the group is still pumping too much crude.
  • The organization was still oversupplying world markets by about 700,000 barrels a day in the first half of this year.
  • While the organization and its partners have agreed to persevere with their cuts until the end of March, figures in the report suggest they would need to make deeper reductions to balance the market in 2018.
  • If current output were sustained, OPEC will oversupply world markets by about 900,000 barrels a day in the first quarter of next year.

ECFR—A. Aydıntaşbaş / Window of opportunity closes on Cyprus reunification

  • Last week, talks for the reunification of Cyprus collapsed. The final deal-breaker was a clash about security arrangements on the island.
  • Today, with Turkey’s relations with Europe so tepid, it is difficult to envision a return to the former zeal for reunification.
  • “We will continue efforts for a settlement within different parameters,” said Turkey’s foreign minister Mevlut Cavusoglu. Ankara will seek to ease the isolation of Turkish Cypriots by striving for a Taiwan-like status (trade but no recognition) for the breakaway republic. Annexation is not likely.
  • Without a Cyprus deal, Turkey’s formal accession process with the EU is hanging by a thread, and it will be tougher to get the European Parliament’s approval on the proposed modernisation of Turkey’s customs union agreement with Europe.

POLITICO—V. Hopkins / In Trieste, modest expectations for Western Balkan integration

  • “We need to re-found Europe,” French President Emmanuel Macron said at a press conference at the Western Balkans Summit, which he attended alongside German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Italian Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni and regional leaders.
  • “The Western Balkans Summit shows us that our common duty is to make sure that these countries develop well and that slowly but surely they move towards the EU,” Chancellor Merkel said.
  • The meeting, the latest in a series of summits launched by Merkel after the EU opted to put a halt to enlargement in 2014, is designed to keep Western Balkan countries engaged with the bloc.
  • Brussels’ most recent proposal for bringing the Balkans further under its wing is a “common regional market” that aims to harmonize legislation and remove non-tariff obstacles to doing business. This would be a watered down version of a previous idea of a joint customs union.
  • The most concrete outcome of the Trieste meeting was the signing—by all countries but Bosnia and Herzegovina—of the Transport Community Treaty, the culmination of almost a decade of negotiations.

The selected pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Javier Solana and ESADEgeo. 

Política Internacional | Permalink

The ESADEgeo Daily Digest, 12/07/2017

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Foreign Policy—C. Lynch, et al. / Secret details of Trump-Putin Syria cease-fire focus on Iranian proxies

  • The confidential US-Russian cease-fire agreement for Syria calls for barring Iranian-backed foreign fighters from a strategic stretch of Syrian territory near the borders of Israel and Jordan.
  • The agreement marked a recognition by Moscow that a separate effort to negotiate a cease-fire in Astana, Kazakhstan, with Iran and Turkey was foundering.
  • Former U.S. diplomats and observers question whether the US-Russian agreement is truly enforceable, expressing doubts that Russia could act as a reliable guarantor for a cease-fire involving the Syrian regime, Iran, and its proxies.
  • “The key to the survival of the Assad regime is Iran, not Russia,” said Fred Hof, a former State Department special advisor for transition in Syria.
  • Some observers said the arrangement could also help turn a de facto partition of southern Syria into a permanent one.
  • Not everyone was so pessimistic. Andrew Tabler, a fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, said southwestern Syria’s relative calm makes it a natural proving ground for U.S. and Russian cooperation. “If we’re going to test something, this is a good place to test it.”

Project Syndicate—K. Basu / The North Korean missile crisis

  • The North’s latest ICBM test implies a level of nuclear risk witnessed only once before, with the Soviet Union in 1962.
  • But unlike the Cuban missile crisis, the North Korean crisis is a three-player game (at least). Like the US, China has a major stake in the outcome.
  • It is not clear that China has the ability – or even the will – to use its considerable leverage to push North Korea to abandon its nuclear weapons voluntarily. China fears that if the North’s abandonment of its nuclear weapons led to eventual Korean reunification, US soldiers would arrive at its doorstep.
  • As for North Korea, its leaders know that giving up their nuclear weapons, without safeguards, would be tantamount to suicide.
  • The players in the North Korean nuclear game must pursue gradual de-escalation, characterized by mutual concessions. The North would roll back its nuclear program by a certain increment, while the US would withdraw a share of its forces from South Korea. Once both sides reached that milestone, they would begin to progress toward the next one, and so on.

Financial Times—J. Webber / Talos and Premier in ‘significant’ Mexico oil discovery

  • An international consortium—comprising US’ Talos Energy, Mexico’s Sierra Oil & UK’s Gas and Premier Oil—has struck oil in Mexico in what it says is the fifth-biggest discovery anywhere in the world in the last five years.
  • The Zama well, some 60km off the coast of the southeastern state of Tabasco, contains an estimated 1.4bn to 2bn barrels of light oil in place, potentially extending into a neighbouring block.
  • The announcement came as Mexico prepares to auction 24 onshore blocks on Wednesday. Mexico has already attracted nearly $50bn investment in the key sector since the first auction, which took place in July 2015.

The New York Times—S. Castle / How ‘Brexit’ could end the European Parliament’s ‘traveling circus’

  • For years, British politicians have campaigned to end the European Parliament’s expensive monthly commute between Brussels and Strasbourg. Now they may finally be close to getting their wish, but only because Britain is leaving the EU.
  • Estimates of the expense of the commute vary, but the European Court of Auditors has identified it as $130 million annually.
  • Under proposals now circulating, the European Parliament would concentrate its work in Brussels and, to compensate Strasbourg for the loss of the parliamentary sittings, the city would host the European Medicines Agency (now based in London). Something of greater political significance could also be offered—perhaps a new military planning headquarters, or the right to host occasional EU summit meetings.
  • France has resisted every previous attempt to remove the Parliament’s seat from Strasbourg, but President Macron, an advocate of modernization, might be persuadable.

The selected pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Javier Solana and ESADEgeo. 

Política Internacional | Permalink

The ESADEgeo Daily Digest, 11/07/2017

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The New York Times—I. Kershner / Israeli Labor Party tries a new leader: Gabbay, self-made millionaire

  • Avi Gabbay, a relative novice in Israeli politics, became the chairman of Israel’s center-left Labor Party, beating Amir Peretz in a runoff.
  • Gabbay’s victory is not likely to pose an imminent threat to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The Labor Party has not won a general election in 18 years, and is currently polling third after Likud and the centrist Yesh Atid.
  • But the extraordinary rise of Gabbay, 50, is expected to breathe new life into the Labor movement. A former CEO of Bezeq, Israel’s telecommunications monopoly, Gabbay was the minister of environmental protection in the Netanyahu cabinet, but disagreements led him to quit and then to join Labor about 6 months ago.
  • Gabbay is a Mizrahi, or Sephardic Jew, which make up about half of Israel’s Jewish population. Many Sephardic Jews have traditionally voted for Likud or other right-wing or religious parties.
  • The next elections are scheduled for late 2019, though many Israeli governments do not last their full four-year terms.

The Guardian—P. Wintour / Saudi demands for restoring relations with Qatar not viable, says US

  • Rex Tillerson’s communications adviser, RC Hammond, said the complete set of Saudi demands to Qatar were not viable even though constituent elements were worth discussing.
  • RC Hammond added that the international community was losing patience with the Gulf’s funding of extremist groups. “This is a two-way street,” he said. “There are no clean hands.”
  • In his first foray into shuttle diplomacy since his appointment, Tillerson is planning to spend most of the week in the Gulf in a bid to mediate in the dispute.
  • Staffan de Mistura, the UN special envoy on Syria warned that the Gulf dispute has the potential to complicate efforts to secure a peace deal in Syria.
  • De Mistura welcomed the ceasefire agreement, but there were reports that Assad’s Syrian army, aligned with Iranian militias, breached it yesterday.

South China Morning Post—M. Lau / Merkel appeals to China for ‘humanity’ for ailing Nobel laureate Liu Xiaobo

  • Germany stepped up its public support for ailing Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo on Monday, with Berlin saying Chancellor ­Angela Merkel hoped Beijing would show “a signal of humanity” towards the dissident.
  • Merkel’s spokesman Steffen Seibert said the latest report of Liu’s worsening health “is depressing”.
  • A German foreign ministry source said that Germany “had several high-level discussions with the Chinese side on Liu’s wish to exit China for medical treatment”, and “[continues] to stand ready to accept Liu Xiaobo for medical treatment.”
  • Berlin-based Chinese dissident and writer Liao Yiwu said that according to a mutual friend, Merkel had “tried her best to raise the issue of Liu Xiaobo every day” during Xi Jinping’s stay in Hamburg.
  • The Chinese foreign ministry spokesman reportedly said that “China hopes relevant countries will respect China’s sovereignty and will not use individual cases to interfere with China’s internal affairs.”

Foreign Affairs—O. Rosenboim / Globalism and nationalism

  • The idea that globalism is fundamentally at odds with national sovereignty is a false and misleading narrative. The recognition of the world’s “oneness” did not mean that political or cultural homogeneity was inevitable or desirable.
  • In its post-war definition, globalism meant an awareness of the political implications of the interconnected globe. In its essence, globalism is democratic, anti-imperialistic and pluralistic.
  • Globalism challenges the idea that national, regional, or international political decisions can be detached from global implications and causes.
  • Only a political strategy grounded in a global understanding of political relations can effectively advance national interests.

The selected pieces do not necessarily reflect the views of Javier Solana and ESADEgeo. 

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